Decreased underestimation, otherwise overestimation, in the elderly and a lack of awareness of decades-relevant decrease in real function

As shown in Figures 3b and 3c, the correlation coefficients between EH and age (r = -0.117, p < 0.01) and between AH and age (r = -0.454, p < 0.01) were significant for the older adults, with the AH–age correlation coefficient significantly larger than the EH–age correlation (p < 0.01). This was not the case for the young adults (r = -0.093 and -0.066).

Figure 3d shows that the self-estimation error (? height) was significantly correlated with age for the older adults (r = 0.228, p < 0.01) but not for the young adults (r = -0.073, p > 0.1). As shown in Figure 3e, the ? height was significantly positively correlated with EH for both the older (r = 0.716, p < 0.01) and young (r = 0.755, p < 0.01) adults, indicating that self-estimation error generally reflect EH for both young and older adults. In contrast, shown in Figure 3f, the ? height was significantly negatively correlated with AH in the older adults (r = -0.389, p < 0.01), with no significant correlation in the young adults (r = -0.038, p > 0.1) This indicated that the self-estimation error in the older adults significantly increased (decreasing underestimation and approaching overestimation) as the physical step-over ability deteriorated.

Self-estimate away from step-more than ability and you may falls

Interviews for falls revealed that 40 (11.6%) young-old and 32 (21.2%) old-old adults, a total of 72 older participants (14.6% of all the older participants), had experienced falls within a year. Figure 4 shows SOT performance for fallers and non-fallers. Two-way ANOVA showed that the non-faller had greater AH than that of the faller group, although EH did not significantly differ for the faller and non-faller groups. Furthermore, 20 out of 72 fallers (27.8%) and 68 out of 422 (16.1%) non-fallers failed to step over the bar at the EH (i.e., overestimation), with these percentage data significantly differing for fallers and non-fallers (p < 0.05).

Comparisons of SOT performance of EH and AH between the fallers and non-fallers. The main effects of SOT performance (F1, 492 = 9.35, p < 0.01) and non-fallers/fallers (F1, 492 = 13.2, p < 0.01) were significant, with the interaction between the two factors being also significant (Fstep 1, 492 = 4.58, p < 0.05). The graphical symbol of “**” indicates p < 0.01. SOT, step-over test; EH, estimated height; AH, actual height.


The performance indicated that 17.8% from people-hold older adults didn’t action along the club within projected restrict top (we.age., EH), while the young people succeeded regarding the SOT samples at EH. Also, reviews anywhere between EH, AH, therefore the resulting estimate error (? level) revealed that new older adults had a tendency to overestimate, or take too lightly to a diminished the total amount, SOT function, compared to the young people. Instance an enthusiastic overestimation when you look at the older adults was also found in most other tasks eg reaching opportunities [18, 19]. In addition, among the many older adults in the present analysis, overestimation try more frequent throughout the fallers as compared to low-fallers. This means that one overestimation, or decreased underestimation, within the the elderly may increase the chance of falls.

Overestimation, otherwise reduced underestimation, out-of SOT ability during the older adults will get originate from a lack from focus on ages-relevant reduction in SOT function. It was clear throughout the pursuing the performance: (i) AH diminished significantly as the many years improved, while EH was almost identical among step 3 a long time (Figure dos), and (ii) AH is actually adversely correlated as we age (roentgen = -0.454), whereas EH is correlated as we grow old (r = -0.117) so you’re able to a lower life expectancy the total amount on old, yet not the students, grownups (Data 3b and you may 3c). The undamaged EH as we grow old implies that this new older adults have been not aware of the years-associated reduction in SOT element because the shown in AH. Such as for example a lack of attention to age-relevant reduction in SOT function, in lieu of decreased SOT ability per se, might lead to overestimation, otherwise reduced underestimation, from SOT feature when you look at the the elderly.